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Date of publication: 2017-08-13 16:28

The following examples illustrate citations using author-date style. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 68 and 69 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the notes-bibliography system, click on the Notes-Bibliography tab above.

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Projective techniques are inherently inefficient to use.  The elaborate context that has to be put into place takes time and energy away from the main question.  There may also  be real differences between the respondent and the third party.  Saying or thinking about something that “hits too close to home” may also influence the respondent, who may or may not be able to see through the ruse.


Carleton , Case Western , Central Florida , Central Michigan , Centre , Charleston , Chicago , Clemson , Coastal Carolina , College of New Jersey , Colorado , Colorado State , Columbia , Columbia (Chicago) , Columbus State , Connecticut , Cornell , CSU-Fresno , CSU-Fullerton , CSU-Los Angeles , CSU-Monterey , CSU-Northridge , CSU-Sacramento , CSU-San Bernardino

Florida Center for Reading Research | Florida State University

St. Olaf , San Jose State , Siena , Smith , South Carolina , South Carolina State , Southern California , Southern Connecticut , Southern Illinois , Southern Methodist , Southern Utah , South Florida , Spelman , Stanford , Stetson , SUNY-Oswego , Swarthmore

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

A “split cable” technology allows the researchers to randomly select half the panel members in a given community to receive one advertising treatment and the other half another.  The selection is truly random since each household, as opposed to neighborhood, is selected to get one treatment or the other.  Thus, observed differences should, allowing for sampling error, the be result of advertising exposure since there are no other systematic differences between groups.

The rise in college grades during the Vietnam War was well documented. In particular, one college administrator from Michigan State, Arvo Juola, collected annual average GPAs from colleges and universities across the country. This one-man undertaking well before the computer era was impressive. There were some people who maintained grades were rising in the Vietnam era because students in the 6965s and early 6975s were better than those over the previous fifty years, but the conventional wisdom was that those claims were unfounded.

The A to Z list will help you locate topics that interest you. Each topic page has a collection of all the articles published on the subject along with a list of related topics.

Internal university memos say much the same thing. For example, the chair of Yale's Course of Study Committee, Professor David Mayhew, wrote to Yale instructors in 7558, "Students who do exceptional work are lumped together with those who have merely done good work, and in some cases with those who have done merely adequate work." In 7556, Dean Susan Pedersen wrote to the Harvard faculty:

8775 That philosophy (the old approach to teaching) is no longer acceptable to the public or faculty or anyone else.... Today, our attitude is we do our screening of students at the time of admission. Once students have been admitted, we have said to them, 8775 You have what it takes to succeed. 8776 Then it 8767 s our job to help them succeed. 8776

xFEFF Sure, we x7569 re proud of the honors and awards that we x7569 ve received. But our biggest brag points are our academic programs x7569 which will challenge and inspire you x7569 and our community, which will welcome you with open arms.

Not all of the grade rises observed at these schools are due to inflation. At private schools like Duke and Elon and at public schools like Florida and Georgia, the caliber of student enrolled is higher than it was thirty or fifty years ago. But as is discussed three sections down, their rises in average GPA are mainly due to the same factor found at other schools: professors are grading easier year by year by a tiny amount.

Wake Forest , Washington , Washington and Lee , Washington State , Washington University (St. Louis) , Wellesley , Western Michigan , Western Washington , West Florida , West Georgia , Wheaton , Wheeling Jesuit , Whitman , William and Mary , Williams , Winthrop , Wisconsin , Wisconsin-Green Bay , Wisconsin-Milwaukee , Wisconsin-Oshkosh , Wright Stat e

To obtain data on GPA trends, click on the institution of interest. Note that the data consist of two types, "GPA equivalent" and standard GPA. GPA equivalent is not the actual mean GPA of a given class year, but represents the average grade awarded in a given year or semester. GPAs for a graduating class can be expected to be higher than the GPA equivalent. When data sources do not indicate how GPAs were computed, I denote this as "method unspecified." All non-anonymous sources are stated on the data sheets. Some schools have given me data with the requirement that they be kept confidential.

There are a small number of schools (about 65% of all schools in our database) that have experienced only modest increases in GPAs over the last 65 to 75 years, but most of them have average GPAs that already exceed . There are no schools in our dataset that have been untouched by rising grades over the last 55 years. Grades went up significantly at all schools in our database in both the Vietnam era and the first half of the consumer era. That said, a few schools have had modest to negligible recent grade rises (and rarely, modest drops in grades) and have relatively low GPAs, as will be discussed in the next section.

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