Date of publication: 2017-09-01 18:39
Brittany Holloway, a music-business major who graduated last spring from New York University, says critical thinking appeared in so many postings during her job search that it, along with traits like “detail-oriented” and “organized,” was nearly meaningless. Only in interviews could she tell what a company meant when it sought those traits.
By critical thinking skills, I mean the various higher-order cognitive operations involved in processing information, rather than simply absorbing it: analyzing, synthesizing, interpreting, explaining, evaluating, generalizing, abstracting, illustrating, applying, comparing, recognizing logical fallacies.
It is primarily the skills dimension that most people appear to have in mind when speaking of critical thinking. This narrow focus has permitted critical thinking to become a hot topic in American education-reasoning skills can be taught in virtually any academic course at any level, and, importantly, they can be taught without venturing into sensitive areas. We can, if we wish, restrict our critical thinking skills to the safe and sanitary.
a. Identify conclusions
b. Identify stated reasons
c. Identify unstated reasons
d. Identify and handle irrelevance
e. See the structure of an argument
Mere facts cannot compete with shibboleths when it comes to making people feel good. Moreover, shibboleths keep off the agenda the painful question of how dangerous it is to have policies which impact millions of human beings without a thorough knowledge of the hard facts needed to understand just what that impact has actually been.... Shibboleths are dangerous, not only because they mobilize political support for policies that most of the supporters have not thought through, but also because these badges of identity make it harder to reverse those policies when they turn out to be disastrous.
Colleges’ capacity to mold thinkers has been a topic of heated debate. Richard Arum, co-author of “Academically Adrift” and “Aspiring Adults Adrift” as well as an NYU sociology professor, is a prominent critic of how schools are faring on that front.
Critical thinking is a domain-general thinking skill. The ability to think clearly and rationally is important whatever we choose to do. If you work in education, research, finance, management or the legal profession, then critical thinking is obviously important. But critical thinking skills are not restricted to a particular subject area. Being able to think well and solve problems systematically is an asset for any career.
6. Care that their beliefs be true, and that their decisions be justified that is, care to "get it right" to the extent possible. This includes the dispositions to
From this perspective, the world is a deceptive place-not just occasionally but inherently. Such a worldview goes beyond the usual suspects (., deceptive TV ads and phony crop circles) to incorporate a broader recognition of the deceptive nature of the world, including such insights as:
If critical thinking is a key phrase in the job listings you are applying for, you want to emphasize your critical thinking skills throughout your job search. Include this phrase in your resumes, cover letters, and interviews.
Different approaches to philosophy are also called philosophies. ( See also epicureanism , existentialism , idealism , materialism , nihilism , pragmatism , stoicism , and utilitarianism.)
It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue assumptions concepts empirical grounding reasoning leading to conclusions implications and consequences objections from alternative viewpoints and frame of reference. Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking.
Proficiency in the skills dimension is necessary but not sufficient for anyone who claims to be a critical thinker. One could excel at reasoning while failing at other dimensions of critical thinking. Indeed, this is not uncommon. A more fully developed conception of critical thinking that includes the worldview and values dimensions is both more difficult to teach and more dangerous to display than a narrow conception that focuses on logical reasoning.